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2020年小升初英语必考语法知识
2019-09-18 20:58:22 来源:小升初网  
 

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  名词:名词单复数,名词的格

  (一)名词单复数

  1.一般情况,直接加-s,如:book-books, bag-bags, cat-cats, bed-beds

  2.以s. x. sh. ch结尾,加-es,如:bus-buses, box-boxes, brush-brushes, watch-watches

  3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:family-families, strawberry-strawberries

  4.以“f或fe”结尾,变f或fe为v, 再加-es,如:knife-knives

  5.不规则名词复数:

  man-men, woman-women, policeman-policemen, policewoman-policewomen, mouse-mice

  child-children, foot-feet, tooth-teeth, fish-fish, people-people, Chinese-Chinese, Japanese-Japanese

  不可数名词的复数就是原型:paper, juice, water, milk, rice, tea

  (二)名词的格

  (1) 有生命的东西的名词所有格:

  a) 单数后加 ’s 如: Lucy’s ruler my father’s shirt

  b) 以s 结尾的复数名词后加 ’如: his friends’ bags

  c) 不以s 结尾的复数后加 ’s children’s shoes

  l并列名词中,如果把 ’s加在最后一个名词后,表示共有, 如:

  Tom and Mike’s car 汤姆和迈克共有的小汽车

  l要表示所有物不是共有的,应分别在并列名词后加’s

  Tom’s and Mike’s cars 汤姆和麦克各自的小汽车

  (2)表示无生命东西的名词通常用“ of +名词”来表示所有关系:如:

  a picture of the classroom a map of China

  冠词:不定冠词,定冠词种类:

  (1)不定冠词:a / an a unit / an uncle

  元音开头的可数名词前用an :

  an egg / an apple / an orange / an eraser / an answer / an ID card / an alarm clock / an actor / an actress / an e-mail / an address / an event / an example / an opera / an houran old man / an interesting book / an exciting sport / an action movie / an art lesson /

  (2)定冠词:the the egg the plane

  2. 用法:

  定冠词的用法:

  (1)特指某(些)人或某(些)物:The ruler is on the desk.

  (2)复述上文提到的人或物:He has a sweater. The sweater is new.

  (3)谈话双方都知道的人或物:The boys aren’t at school.

  (4)在序数词前:John’s birthday is February the second.

  (5)用于固定词组中:in the morning / afternoon / evening

  不用冠词的情况:

  (1)专有名词前:China is a big country.

  (2)名词前有定语:this , that , my , your , some, any , no 等:

  This is my baseball.

  (3)复数名词表示一类人和事:Monkeys can’t swim. They are teachers.

  (4)在节日,日期,月份,季节前:Today is Christmas Day. It’s Sunday.

  (5)一日三餐前:We have breakfast at 6:30.

  (6)球类 棋类运动前:They often play football after class. He plays chess at home.

  * 但乐器前要用定冠词:I play the guitar very well.

  (7)学科名称前:My favorite subject is music.

  (8)在称呼或头衔的名词前:This is Mr Li.

  (9)固定词组中:at noon at night by bus

  代词、形容词、副词

  代词:人称代词,物主代词

  人称代词物主代词

  主格宾格

  第一

  人称单数I(我)memy(我的)

  复数we(我们)usour(我们的)

  第二

  人称单数you(你)youyour(你的)

  复数you(你们)youyour(你们的)

  第三

  人称单数he(他)himhis(他的)

  she(她)herher(她的)

  it(它)itits(它的)

  复数they(他们/她们/它们)themtheir(他们的/她们的/它们的)

  形容词,副词:比较级,最高级

  (一)、形容词的比较级

  1、形容词比较级在句子中的运用:两个事物或人的比较用比较级,比较级后面一般带有单词than。比较级前面可以用more, a little来修饰表示程度。than后的人称代词用主格(口语中可用宾格)。

  2.形容词加er的规则:

   一般在词尾加er ;

   以字母e 结尾,加r ;

   以一个元音字母和一个辅音字母结尾,应双写末尾的辅音字母,再加er ;

   以“辅音字母+y”结尾,先把y变i,再加er 。

  3.不规则形容词比较级:

  good-better, beautiful-more beautiful

  (二)副词的比较级

  1.形容词与副词的区别(有be用形,有形用be;有动用副,有副用动)

  在句子中形容词一般处于名词之前或be动词之后

  副词在句子中最常见的是处于实义动词之后

  2.副词比较级的变化规则基本与形容词比较级相同(不规则变化:well-better, far-farther)

  数词:基数词、序数词

  (1)1-20

  one,two,three,four,five,six,seven,eight,nine,ten,eleven,twelve,thirteen,fourteen,fifteen, sixteen,seventeen,eighteen,nineteen,twenty

  (2)21-99 先说“几十”,再说“几”,中间加连字符。

  23→twenty-three,34→thirty-four,45→forty—five,56→fifty-six,67→sixty-seven,78→seventy-eight,89→eighty-nine,91→ninety-one

  (3)101—999先说“几百”,再加and,再加末两位数或末位数;

  586→five hundred and eighty-six,803→eight hundred and three

  (4)l,000以上,先从右往左数,每三位数加一个“,”,第一个“,”前为thousand.第二个“,”前为million,第三个“,”前为billion

  1,001→one thousand and one(www.Xsc.cn)

  18,423→eighteen thousand,four hundred and twenty-three

  6,260,309→six million two hundred and sixty thousand three hundred and nine

  750,000,000,000→seven hundred and fifty billion

  序数词

  (1)一般在基数词后加th

  eg.four→fourth,thirteen→thirteenth

  (2)不规则变化

  one→first,two→second,three→third,five→fifth,eight→eighth,nine→ninth,twelve—twelfth

  (3)以y结尾的十位整数,变y为ie再加th

  twenty→twentieth, forty→fortieth, ninety→ninetieth

  (4)从二十一后的“几十几”直至“几百几十几”或“几千几百几十几”只将个位的基数词变为序数词。

  twenty-first,two hundred and forty-fifth

  基数词转为序数词的口诀:

  基变序,有规律,词尾加上-th.

  一,二,三,特殊记,词尾字母t,d,d.

  八去t,九去e, ve要用f替。

  ty将y变成i,th前面有个e.

  若是碰到几十几,前用基来后用序。

  介词:常用介词:in, on, at, behind等

  1.at表示时间概念的某一个点。(在某时刻、时间、阶段等)。

  at 1:00(dawn,midnight,noon)在一点钟(黎明、午夜、中午)

  2.on

  1)表示具体日期。

  注:(1)关于"在周末"的几种表示法:

  at(on)the weekend在周末---特指

  at(on)weekends在周末---泛指

  over the weekend在整个周末

  during the weekend在周末期间

   (2)在圣诞节,应说at Christmas?而不说on Christmas?

  2)在(刚……)的时候。

  On reaching the city he called up his parents.

  一到城里他就给父母打了一个电话。

  3.in

  1)表示"时段"、"时期",在多数情况下可以和during互换,前者强调对比,后者强调持续。in(during)1988(December,the 20th century)在一九八八年(十二月、二十世纪)

  动词:动词的四种时态:

  (1)一般现在时:

  一般现在时的构成

  1. be动词:主语+be(am, is, are)+其它。如:I am a boy. 我是一个男孩。

  2. 行为动词:主语+行为动词(+其它)。如:We study English. 我们学习英语。

  当主语为第三人称单数(he, she, it)时,要在动词后加"-s"或"-es"。如:Mary likes Chinese.玛丽喜欢汉语。

  动词+s的变化规则

  1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:cook-cooks, milk-milks

  2.以s. x. sh. ch. o结尾,加-es,如:guess-guesses, wash-washes, watch-watches, go-goes

  3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:study-studies

  (2)一般过去时:

  动词过去式详解 动词的过去式的构成规则有:

  A、规则动词

  (1) 一般直接在动词的后面加ed:如 worked , learned , cleaned , visited

  (2) 以e结尾的动词直接加d:如 lived , danced , used

  (3) 以辅音字母加y结尾的动词要改y为i再加ed(此类动词较少)如 study – studied carry – carried worry – worried (注意play、stay不是辅音字母加y,所以不属于此类)

  (4) 双写最后一个字母(此类动词较少)如 stopped

  B、不规则动词(此类词并无规则,须熟记)小学阶段要记住以下动词的原形和过去式:sing – sang , eat – ate ,

  see – saw , have – had , do – did , go – went , take – took , buy – bought , get – got , read – read ,fly – flew , am/is – was ,

  are – were , say – said , leave – left , swim – swam , tell – told , draw – drew , come – came , lose – lost , find – found , drink – drank , hurt – hurt , feel – felt

  (3)一般将来时:

  基本结构:

  (1)be going to + do;

  (2)will+ do. be going to = will

  I am going to go swimming tomorrow(明天). = I will go swimming tomorrow.

  (4)现在进行时: am,is,are+动词现在分词

  动词现在分词详解 动词的ing形式的构成规则:

  (1) 一般的直接在后面加上ing , 如doing , going , working , singing , eating

  (2) 以e 结尾的动词,要先去e再加ing ,如having , writing

  (3) 双写最后一个字母的(此类动词极少)有:running , swimming , sitting , getting

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